Individual blood glucose responses will vary, but the following flours are made from nuts or beans, so they’re gluten-free and lower in carbs than wheat flour. You can usually find them at specialty grocery stores or online, or you can make your own at home.
Per serving (1/4 cup): 180 calories, 14 g fat (1 g sat), 8 g carbs, 8 g fiber, 0 g sugars, 4 g protein, 0 g net carbs
Low in carbs and high in fiber, this rich, nutty flour also delivers protein, healthy fats, and inflammation-fighting vitamin E. Hazelnut flour is denser than most other flours, so it’s often mixed with almond or coconut flour to create a fluffier texture. It has a sweet, buttery flavor that works well in desserts such as biscotti and pie crusts.
Per serving (1/4 cup): 160 calories, 14 g fat (1 g sat), 6 g carbs, 4 g fiber, 2 g sugars, 6 g protein, 2 g net carbs
Almond flour is one of the most popular flour alternatives, and for good reason: It has a fine texture similar to wheat flour, but packs in twice as much protein and is unlikely to spike blood sugar. A quarter-cup serving also delivers around 20 percent of the RDI for magnesium. This key mineral helps your body use energy and regulate blood sugar. Because almond flour’s fat content adds moisture, it works well as a one-to-one swap in tender baked goods like pancakes and muffins.
Per serving (1/4 cup): 133 calories, 13 g fat (1 g sat), 3 g carbs, 1 g fiber, 0 g sugars, 3 g protein, 2 g net carbs
Walnuts are loaded with heart-healthy omega-3 fats, which can reduce inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity. One study found that people who ate roughly 1.5 ounces of walnuts a day had better markers of metabolic health, such as glucose and cholesterol levels, after four months. Research shows that walnut flour contains a good portion of the healthy fats and antioxidants as the nuts themselves. Walnut flour has an earthy flavor and, compared to almond flour, a coarser texture that can weigh down baked goods. Start by replacing about a third of your regular flour for walnut, and adjust from there.
Per serving (1/4 cup): 133 calories, 15 g fat (1 g sat), 3 g carbs, 1 g fiber, 1 g sugars, 1 g protein, 2 g net carbs
Pecan flour has a nutty, slightly maple flavor that enhances both sweet and savory recipes. It also adds a good dose of magnesium, and iron. According to one study, eating a pecan-rich diet may protect against insulin resistance and improve insulin levels. Experts say that the healthy fats, fiber, and protein in the nuts may prevent blood sugar swings. Like other nut flours, pecan flour has a dense texture that works better in soft, tender baked treats.
Per serving (1/4 cup): 120 calories, 3 g fat (3 g sat), 16 g carbs, 10 g fiber, 2 g sugars, 4 g protein, 6 g net carbs
At 10 grams per serving, coconut flour is loaded with fiber. Because your body can’t break down fiber, it slows digestion and the release of glucose into your bloodstream. This can help temper blood sugar spikes and keep you full for longer. Compared to nut- and bean-based flours, coconut flour has a low moisture content and mild coconut flavor, so it’s excellent for baking. It creates a fluffy, light texture.
Per serving (1/4 cup): 89 calories, 1.5 g fat (0 g sat), 13 g carbs, 2.5 g fiber, 2.5 g sugars, 5 g protein, 10.5 g net carbs
Common in Indian cuisine—where it’s called besan or gram flour—chickpea flour is lower in calories than other flours. At 13 grams per serving, it contains fewer carbs than white flour (24 grams) but more than many nut-based flours (3 to 16 grams). Chickpea flour has an earthy, nutty taste and thick texture that makes it a good binding agent, so use it as a substitute for breadcrumbs in meatballs and fritters. Traditionally, chickpea flour is used to make flatbreads (farinata in Italy) and crepes (pudla in India).
Although these flours have nutritional benefits, they contain a higher amount of carbs. Many have nearly the same amount—or more—than regular white flour, which can set off a blood sugar surge.
Per serving (1/4 cup): 110 calories, 0 g fat (0 g sat), 23 g carbs, 4 g fiber, 0 g sugars, 4 g protein, 19 g net carbs
An ancient type of wheat, spelt has a pleasant, nutty taste. It also has a similar texture and consistency as white flour, making it a higher-fiber (3 grams more per serving), higher-protein, and higher-potassium swap.
Per serving (1/4 cup): 140 calories, 2 g fat (0 g sat), 25 g carbs, 4 g fiber, 1 g sugars, 5 g protein, 21 g net carbs
Technically a tiny seed, amaranth contains many minerals, such as magnesium and selenium, that help support metabolic function. A quarter-cup serving of the flour also provides almost half of the RDI of iron for a man and a quarter of a woman’s RDI. Getting enough iron may help protect your heart health and support energy levels. Amaranth has an earthy flavor and low moisture content, so it can add a chewy, crisp texture to breads, pizza doughs, and cookies.
Per serving (1/4 cup): 110 calories, 0 g fat (0 g sat), 28 g carbs, 3 g fiber, 0 g sugars, 1 g protein, 25 g net carbs
Made from a root vegetable, cassava flour is gluten-free and adds a soft, fluffy texture. It has a mild flavor similar to wheat, so it works well as a substitution in most recipes. But cassava is high in carbs, serving up 4 grams more per quarter-cup serving than white flour. Watch your portions and pair the flour with sources of protein and healthy fat to prevent glucose spikes. Or try combining cassava with a high-protein nut flour.